What Agreement Did Great Britain And The United States Make In The Treaty Of 1818

The treaty prevented both nations from seeking unfair advantages by accelerating the settlement of the area, which was then dominated by the Hudson`s Bay Company. In 1818, when the United States accepted the idea of a common occupation, it did not really have the resources to make a strong impression on the Pacific Northwest. There was no navy as powerful as the British, nor was there a colonization agent as well organized and concentrated as the Hudson`s Bay Company. The vast majority of the population lived far east of the Mississippi River. Its fur traders and trappers did not successfully enter the Rockies until the 1820s or found paths through the mountains to the west coast. Some Americans supported the idea of a port on the Pacific coast, but most did not imagine that the United States would expand its stocks beyond the continental ditch. The controversial area of the Pacific coast, called Oregon Land, stretched from the Ridge of the Rockies in the east to the ocean in the west and from the 42nd parallel to the south (now the California-Oregon border) at the parallel of 54 degrees, 40 minutes north (now the Alaska-British Columbia border). This area was claimed by the various explorers who arrived first by sea and then by land. At different times, Spain and Russia were among those challenging the region, but between 1818 and 1824 the Spanish and Russians abandoned their claims to the area south of Alaska and northern California. Subsequently, only Great Britain and the United States competed for Oregon Country among the developed nations. The rush bagot pact was an agreement between the United States and Great Britain to eliminate their fleets from the Great Lakes, with the exception of small patrol vessels. The 1818 Convention established the western border between the United States and British North America (later Canada) at the forty-ninth parallel with the Rockies. Both agreements reflected the easing of diplomatic tensions that led to the War of 1812 and marked the beginning of Anglo-American cooperation.

While these commissions were debating border issues, Rush and Gallatin concluded the Anglo-American Convention of 1818, which notably confirmed the permanent rights of the United States to fish off Newfoundland and Labrador. The convention also provided for Russian mediation on the issue of runaway slaves at the hands of the United Kingdom (American slave owners eventually obtained financial compensation) and also found that the border ran from angle Inlet in the south to the 49th parallel, and then east of the Rockies. Oregon Country would remain open for both countries for ten years. Despite the relatively friendly nature of the agreement, it nevertheless led to a bitter struggle for control of Oregon Country over the next two decades. The British-chartered Hudson`s Bay Company, which had previously established a commercial network on Fort Vancouver, on the lower Columbia River, with other forts in present-day eastern Washington and Idaho, as well as on the Oregon coast and Puget Sound, undertook a difficult campaign to limit the intrusion of American fur traders into the area. In the 1830s, as pressure was under way in the United States to directly annul the area, the company took a deliberate policy of eradicating all fur-bearing animals from Oregon Country, in order to maximize its remaining profits and delay the arrival of American miners and settlers. The colony`s policy of deterrence was, to some extent, undermined by the actions of John McLoughlin, chief of the Hudson`s Bay Company at Fort Vancouver, who regularly provided relief and welcome to American immigrants who arrived on the Oregon Trail. [Citation required] Edmond S. Meany, History of the State of Washington (New York: The Macmillan Co., 1909); Clarence Bagley, History of King County, Washington (Chicago: S. J. Clarke Publishing Co., 1929); Treaties and other international acts of the United States of America.