A1: BBA 2019 is a two-year agreement that increases the budget ceilings for defence and non-defence in FY2020 and FY2021. As shown in Table 1, the agreement increases the defense cap for fiscal year 2020 by about $US 90 billion via the previous cap of $576 billion and increases the fiscal cap by $US 590 billion for fiscal 2021 by about $US 81 billion. Q4: What does the budget deal mean for the future of U.S. defense spending? Paul Waldman: Why a strange piece of impartiality might erupt While every budget agreement since 2011 has raised both defense and non-defense caps, BBA 2019 is again the most similar to BBA 2018, as it raises defense caps more than non-defense caps. As shown in Figure 1 above, the 2013 BBA and the 2015 BBA – negotiated under a democratic White House and a Congress divided in 2013 and fully controlled by Republicans in 2015 – nearly equalized the budget caps for defense and non-defense. BBA 2018 – passed when Republicans controlled both congressional and White House houses – raised defense caps by about $35 billion more than non-defense caps in fiscal year 2018 and fiscal year 2019. BBA 2019 increases defense caps by $22 billion more than non-defense caps over the two-year period. In addition, each of the last four budget agreements has relied on the OCO to further increase defence spending (and, to a lesser extent, the level of non-defence) beyond the ceilings, although only BBA 2015 and BBA 2019 specifically impose OCO levels in the legislation. After the 2021 fiscal year, there will be no ceiling for the defense budget or land.
The structure and date of the negotiations that the BCA has put in place since 2011 will no longer exist and Congress will have to return to regular order in the budget process. However, regular order is something with which the current Congress and the White House have little exercise or experience. * The budget cap for fiscal year 2019 was increased from $562.1 billion to $647.0 billion by the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018. ** The OCO and the emergency supplementary funding are not charged against the budget ceilings. Together, these budget agreements have ensured that the impact of BCA caps on defence spending is lower than initially indicated. Figure 2 below shows the initial and revised budget caps compared to the Obama administration`s projections for national defense spending in the budget proposal for fiscal year 2012, the last budget presented before the adoption of the BCA. Between FY2012 and FY2021, total core defence spending is expected to be more than a trillion lower than the fiscal 2012 budget forecast, below the initial ten-year BCA ceilings. . .